October 2016
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Category: Education, General, Social Problem, news comments

article in La Vanguardia:Lives of the world map

A dues veus – Joan Fuster, Vikas Kumar 7

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Category: Nuria´s Corner, Travel, Viaje

My Experience in Bihar, India

Sorry, this entry is only available in Catalan.

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Tags: , | Category: Social Problem, news comments

81.4 percent of Bihar population is poor says UN report

Patna,(BiharTimes): Now the bad news for Bihar. It is as poor as and as backward as strife-torn African countries like Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda. It continues to occupy the bottom place in India with Jharkhand slightly better.

The new Multi dimensional Poverty Index (MPI) puts proportion of poor in Bihar 81.4 percent of its population or 77.3 million people as measured by the ten weighted indicators that measures health, education and standard of living. The new measure gives a broader understanding of many types of deprivation the poor may face.

A comparison of state-level and country-level data from the newly released multi-dimensional poverty index (MPI) shows that while Jharkhand and Bihar are similar to least-developed countries of the world Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda, Kerala and Goa are at a similar level of development as middle-income countries like Philippines and Indonesia.

The new MPI measure of poverty was released by the UK-based Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHDI) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

A comparison of the MPIs for various Indian states with the MPIs of the 103 other developing countries reveal the regional differences within India.

For example the MPI for Kerala (0.065), the best-performing Indian state, is close to that of Paraguay in South America and the Philippines in Asia, while that of Goa, the next best (0.094) is similar to that of Indonesia.

It further says that MPI of Punjab is similar to that of the North American country of Guatemala while Himachal Pradesh’s is close to that of North-West African nation of Morocco. Tamil Nadu, with an MPI of 0.141, ranks close to Ghana in the West Africa.

The north-eastern states are at the same level of development as recently quake-hit Haiti, the poorest country in the Americas.

West Bengal’s MPI is equal to West African nation of Ivory Coast, that of Orissa is equal to the sub-Saharan country Chad and Rajasthan is compared with Tanzania and Mauritania.

The Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda, have development indicators slightly worse than Madhya Pradesh, but better than Jharkhand and Bihar, the two Indian states at the bottom of the report card.

(Source: http://bihartimes.com/Newsbihar/2010/Aug/Newsbihar02Aug8.html)

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Category: General

Why don’t you go back there?

Before deciding to move to India, Amanda had completed two years at the Royal Veterinary College in London; she could not clear her exams in the third year as she was busy nursing her then boyfriend, who was suffering from multiple sclerosis.

While visiting India and undertaking some volunteer work while traveling through India, at an orphanage in Madurai, which Murphy was visiting with her friend Anita Roddick in 1990, a small boy asked Amanda, “You speak so well, why don’t you build us a school and teach us”?

Amused and moved at the same time, the former veterinary student replied, “Sweety, I am not a teacher and I don’t have the money”.

But 20 years down the line, Amanda has not only built a school for over 700 students in the area, she also runs a $2.5 million business which provides employment to over 1,000 locals in this Tamil Nadu town.

Even after she returned to London, Amanda could not forget the boy’s simple question. After dropping off her friend Anita at her residence, she sat in her car for nine hours, lost in thought.

The solution to her predicament came from an unexpected quarter. Anita’s husband Gordon, who was the managing director of the ‘Body Shop’ line of products, saw her sitting there and asked her why she hadn’t gone home.

After hearing her story, Gordon showed her a wooden massage roller. “Why don’t you go back there,” he said, “This particular wood is available there. Make me 2,000 rollers in six months. I will buy them from you. You can start building your school.”

So Amanda quit her job in London, packed her bags, moved to Tamil Nadu and started making wooden massage rollers.

Soon, Amanda’s modest carpentry unit to manufacture massage rollers diversified into the business of home furnishing. The company today also has a tailoring unit which makes bags from organic cotton clothes.

“There is a flow chain to ensure that everybody gets the benefits, nobody is exploited, there is no animal testing and no child labour,” she explains passionately.

Amanda has been trying to make a difference and practice a policy of inclusiveness even while running her school and company.

Of the 700 children in her school, 80 are differently-abled, and have special teachers to help them. Forty personnel of her 1,000-odd workforce are differently-abled; ten of them are HIV positive.

Her three companies — Teddy Exports, Murphy Products and Happy Wood — employ nearly 600 women. The companies also have a day-time medical clinic with four doctors, two nurses and HIV counselors.

Amanda also has a farm section with its own staff, six horses, 50 dogs, ducks, hens and donkeys. “The farm section is for love. I keep many animals so that there is someone to love me,” she says with a twinkle in her eyes.

She continues to take life head one with the same spirit and passion that made her shift continents and settle in India two decades ago. A car accident in 2002 killed her husband and left her in a wheelchair for three-and-a-half years, but she continues to fight on, running her school and companies with the same zeal.

Amanda has two daughters and one son, who study in a boarding school.

“If you think education is expensive, try ignorance,’ states a slogan etched in large, bold letters across one of the walls of her school.

Amanda’s personal cabin is surprisingly small for someone running such diverse and challenging operations. But the office space matters little, as it is easy to see that the lady has her heart in the right place.

(Orginaly published in www.rediff.com)

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Category: General

Petit Buddhas School (PBS)

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Happy New Year!


New year is great opportunity to set your expectations and put a new resolution…the possibilities are exciting. Why not exceed them?
The place where expectations are lowest: leadership. Everyone expects you to get in line and follow, not lead.
However this year one of my resolution is to follow and support others to lead…
The opportunity this year is bigger than ever: to lead change, to create a movement in a direction you want to go.
This is also time to reflect, to analyse your work of last year, learn but not to regret and happily accept some of past mistakes and failures and move ahead.
Last year have been a mix of success and failures. With initial hurdle and low participation, Eco-Cultural travel has still been a good success. We have got some wonderful members for the organisation and they are actively participating in different initiatives. Last year we started few wonderful projects with great potential to bring some real changes in the area we are working. However many of them are still in the conceptual/planning/negotiation phase. We have also started reorganising the core group and start a membership drive. We wish to complete it by early Jan.
New year gift to children of Pepit Buddhas school have been arranged and they will receive it in new year session.
Work on integrated cooperative farming is also speeding up and we are hoping to get more than 3000 farmers by mid 2010 and start our pilot project in the new cropping season. This year we also wish to start Eco-Tarraco project in Tarragona, Pojh pond renovation project, play ground project for school, Safe drinking water in each house and improving the rural clinic of pojh.
As always we have to be effective in our effort and think before work. Innovation has to be our motto and courage to dream.
Wish you a wonderful new year!


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Tags: , , , | Category: Community development, Farmers, Social Problem, climate change

Can India compensate Bihar for its lower energy consumption?

Can India compensate Bihar for its lower energy consumption?

India is arguing in climate change dialogue that wealthy nation should compensate poor for its lower energy consumption. Thanks to Bihar and other poor states that India can claim to have lower energy consumption rate and putting strong argument against cliamte change deal…

Bihar’s per capita energy consumption is the lowest in the country and the government’s rural electrification campaign is a “failure”, according to a report by the Greenpeace India Society.

“Bihar’s annual per capita energy consumption, at 75 kWh (kilowatt per hour), is the lowest in India and far below the national average of 613 kWh,” the report, titled “Energy Injustice”, said.

Can you imagine this energy inequality?

For example, two 100-Watt bulbs on for 2 hours per day in summer and 6 hours per day in winter will use about 290kWh per year. So 75 kWh consumption means they have to use one 100-watt bulb 1 hr in summer and 3 hrs per day in winter. However this is average of whole state where capital Patna is getting more electricity and better-off people are using more. Average household electricity use in the UK is about 4,500 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year without considering other energy consumption.

How it work in Bihar?

According to Greenpeace India, only 30 percent of rural households in the state have been electrified.

The Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojna (RGGVY) is a a centrally-sponsored programme launched in 2005 to provide electricity in rural areas.
As per RGGVY norms, a village will be considered electrified if 10 percent households and some important structures like the panchayat building got electricity.
While 70-75 percent villages in Bihar are considered electrified, only 30 percent households in these villages have received electricity, according to Greenpeace India report.

Interesting to see high moral ground of India in climate change deal and asking the developed country to pay poor country for low energy use. Can India compensate Bihar for its lower energy consumption?

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Tags: , , , , , , | Category: Agriculture, Community development, Farmers, Nutrition, Social Problem

Cause of declining nutritional quality in India: is it biased Green Revolution?


Malnutrition affecting one in five Indians

A child from Pojh, Bihar ( Prabhat field of operation)

45 percent of all children under age three in India are underweight – a higher average prevalence than in sub-Saharan Africa (UNISEF)

Despite vast improvements in the country’s economy, under-nutrition remains a challenge in India. While real incomes and real wages have increased, there has been an offsetting reduction in calorie requirements. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) survey of 2006 found that 45 percent of all children under age three were underweight – a higher average prevalence than in sub-Saharan Africa (http://www.unicef.org/). Remember that green revolution has not touched sub-Saharan Africa while India is one of the big success story of green revolution. In several Indian states such as Bihar and Madhya Pradesh, under-nutrition levels have increased since the previous survey of 1999. Average per capita calorie intake is declining, as is the intake of many other nutrients; indeed fats are the only major nutrient group whose per capita consumption is unambiguously increasing. Today, more than three quarters of the population live in households whose per capita calorie consumption is less than 2,100 in urban areas and 2,400 in rural areas – numbers that are often cited as “minimum requirements” in India (UN recommends 2350 calories per day). A related concern is that anthropometric indicators of nutrition in India, for both adults and children, are among the worst in the world. Furthermore, the improvement of these measures of nutrition appears to be slow relative to what might be expected in the light of international experience and of India’s recent high rates of economic growth. Indeed, according to the National Family Health Survey, the proportion of underweight children remained virtually unchanged between 1998-99 and 2005-06 (from 47 to 46 percent for the age group of 0-3 years).

Various arguments have been given for declining nutrition level in India. One of the leading hypothesis is high price rise of some of the critical food elements. For example price of pulses (main source of protein in Indian diet) has increased much more than average price increase of food commodities. This is due to lower rate of production growth. The aggregate annual growth rate of pulses has increased by 1.4% over the last two decades and the population rose by 1.8%. This in turn has resulted in the decline of the per capita availability of pulses from 16 kg a year to only 12.7 kg. This Other arguments like declining levels of physical activity and possibly also to various improvements in the health environment (Deaton and Dreze, 2008) have not been validated. Other reason can be exclusion of pulses in food rationing. Historically Indian has always neglected pulses as a part of food rationing. However in past pulses were produced sufficiently to fulfil the dietary need of population.

Biased green revolution?

Yellow peas add my Ministry of Consumer Affair. Yellow Peas are mostly imported from Canada

Yellow peas add my Ministry of Consumer Affair. Government is looking for cheap substitute. Yellow Peas are mostly imported from Canada

The Green Revolution is term used for new developments in the field of agriculture during previous decades contain the makings of a new revolution (read more about Green revolution in my blog “Green revolution and sustainable agriculture”).  The story of wheat was main success story of Green revolution but later it was replicated for rice in Asia. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) established in Philippines with the help of Ford and Rockefeller Foundations played major role in high yielding rice varietal research. World Cereal production more than doubled between the years 1961 – 1985 mainly due to increase in production in developing nations which was mainly contributed by higher yield of of rice, maize, and wheat during that period.  In India, during 1950-51 the total land under wheat cultivation was 9.75 million hectares, production 6.46 million tonnes and productivity 663 kg per hectare, however these figures improved over the years due to adoption of high yielding varieties. Productivity climbed to 851 kg per ha in 1960-61 reaching 2281 kg per ha in 1990-91 and by 2007-08 soared to 2785 kg per ha with a production of 78.40 million tonnes and total land under wheat cultivation at 28.15 million ha. Wheat production showed an 843 percent increase between 1950 and 1992. Most of this greater production was the result of an increase in yields that increased almost 3.5 times.

Similarly in case of rice whose total land under cultivation was 30.81 million ha in 1950-51 with production at 20.58 million tonnes and yield at 668 kg per ha. With the use of HYV seeds, productivity rose to 1013 by 1960, 1336 in 1980’s and 1740’s in 1990’s and 2203 by 2007-08 with total area under cultivation rising to 43.77 million ha and total production at 96.43 million tonnes.  Since 1950 the increase in rice production has been more than 350 percent. Most of this increase was the result of an increase in yields; the number of hectares increased only 40 percent during this period. Yields increased from 1,336 kilograms per hectare in FY 1980 to 1,751 kilograms per hectare in FY 1990. The per-hectare yield increased more than 262 percent between 1950 and 1992.

Lentil Mill in Barbigha - a small nondescriptive town of Bihar. Potential area of pulse production but largely negelected

Lentil Mill in Barbigha - a small nondescript town of Bihar. Potential area of pulse production are largely neglected

The green revolution bypassed the pulses. Pulses sector on the other hand has lagged behind on all counts. The acreage of pulses was 19.09 million ha in 1950-51 with production at 8.51 million and yield at 441 kg per ha. In 1966-67, total area under pulse cultivation marginally rose to 22.12 but productivity fell to 377 kg/ha. By 1979-80, yield was 385 kg/ha although total area under pulse cultivation rose to 22.26 million ha and production marginally rose to 8.57 million tonnes. By mid-90’s, the productivity climbed up to 610 kg but total area under pulse cultivation remained more or less same at 23.03 and latest available figures for 2007-08 shows total area under pulse cultivation at 23.86 million ha, production at 15.12 million ha and productivity at 638. The aggregate annual growth rate of pulses has increased by 1.4% over the last two decades and the population rose by 1.8%. This in turn has resulted in the decline of the per capita availability of pulses from 16 kg a year to only 12.7 kg.

Public Distribution System without pulses

Food rationing system, the public distribution system (PDS) has played some vital role in attaining higher levels of the household food security. However it has played little role in improving the nutrition level in general. All through the ups and downs of Indian agriculture, PDS was continued as a deliberate social policy of the government with the objectives of providing essential food item (mainly cereals) and other essential items to vulnerable sections of the society at subsidised prices. It also played role of moderating open market prices of cereals, the distribution of which constitutes a fairly big share of the total marketable surplus; and to attempt socialisation in the matter of distribution of essential commodities. The PDS seeks to provide to the beneficiaries two cereals, rice and wheat and four essential commodities (sugar, vegetable oil, and kerosene oil for cooking and light). Pulses one of the main protein source are not part of PDS.

Market Factor

Analysis of market data of wholesale price of pulses show that pulses price in the Indian markets enjoy annual price gains over the study period with the average annual gain being 16.3%. The largest annual price increases are Koppal Cowpea, Jhunjhunu Cowpea, Hazaribagh Bengalgram dal, and Chaibasa Greengram dal at 48.8%, 45.5%, 43% and 40.1% respectively. The most volatile pulse is Gadag Cowpea at 191% followed by Koppal Cowpea at 114.9%, Hazaribagh Bengalgram at 75.4%, Chaibasa Greengram dal at 62.5% and Hazaribagh Bengalgram dal at 58.2%. Volatility of 14% for Bhagalpur Arhar is the least volatile while Bhagalpur Masurdal has the second lowest volatility of 17.8%. On an average the annual volatility of all the combination is 46%. (price data was downloaded from the Agricultural Marketing Information System Network (AGMARKNET) http://www.agmarknet.nic.in ). Price volatility of pulses adversely affect its annual balance intake by poor people.

The shortage in the total production of the pulses is only 0.1 million tonne in 2007 and 2009. In 2007 the production was 14.76 million tonne. This year, the pulse production in India has gone down to 14.66 million tonne. But this little fluctuation in the rate of the production has been able to set the pulse prices high by minimum of 18% for chana in only about three months. Arhar, which is consumed in larger amounts in both rural and urban India, has seen an increase of 53% in its price during the same period in the markets of Delhi.

The reason behind this problem is that the consumption of the lentil is very high in India and does not leave scope for its buffering for the year when production goes down, even marginally. The farmers also cannot do much about the price as futures trading in pulses in India is not allowed. Further average economic growth of 6% in the past 10 years alone leading to change in food habits of middle class Indians. Now, instead of rice and wheat, the middle class population is mostly consuming pulses for a more balanced diet. This has also worsen the situation for poor.

Recently, M S Swaminathan, architecture of green revolution in India and currently Member of Parliament in a speech in Rajya Sabha (Upper House of Indian Parliament) pointed out that “There are new technologies which can help enhance the yield of pulses and oilseeds by 200 to 300 percent. The country’s imports of pulses are increasing , while there is a great scope to produce in the rain fed areas the pulses and oilseeds we need.” However till now we have failed to bring green revolution in pulse production.

Green revolution achieved in filling the hungry stomach but it failed to improve nutrition quality which severely affected quality of life and health expenditure in developing and underdeveloped countries.


Deaton, Angus and Drèze, Jean; (2008) Nutrition In India: Facts And Interpretations, Working papers 170, Centre for Development Economics, Delhi School of Economics

SHORTAGE IN PULSE PRODUCTION MAKING WAY FOR HIGH PRICES (http://www.centad.org/tradenews_1034.asp)

Indian experience on household food and nutrition security (http://www.fao.org/)

Nutrition data (http://www.unicef.org/)

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Tags: , , , , , , | Category: Agriculture, Farmers, climate change, environment

Climate change politics and poor farmers

The impact of climate change on the world poverty is an issue of great significance but has not given needed attention in current climate change debate. It is not an issue that can be left to the future as the impact is already felt in many parts of the world. Climate change can affect our lives in different ways however one of the major impact will be on the agriculture which will affect the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people who depend on agriculture for survival. Poverty in the underdeveloped or developing countries is still largely rural. For example about 70% of South Asia’s population lives in rural areas. In some area like state of Bihar in India rural population is more than 80% and it accounts for more than 75% of the poor. Agriculture is the main livelihood in the rural area which employs about 60% of labour force in these countries and contributes less than 25% of regional GDP (in Bihar for 2008, agriculture accounts for 35%, industry 9% and service 55% of the economy of the state).  The Green Revolution of 1970s and 1980s substantially increased food grain productivity and increased rural wages. Agricultural growth is especially effective in reducing poverty. Estimates show that overall GDP growth originating in agriculture is, on average, at least twice as effective in benefiting the poorest half of a country’s population as growth generated in non-agricultural sectors. In sum, agricultural growth can reduce poverty directly, by raising farm incomes, and indirectly, through labour markets and by reducing food prices.

What experts are saying?

William Cline, a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development (CGD) and the Peterson Institute for International Economics say that India could see a drop of 30-40% in agricultural productivity.  He claims that among all potential damages which could occur from climate change, the damage to agriculture could be among the most devastating. Since agriculture constitutes a much larger fraction of GDP in developing countries, even a small percentage loss in agricultural productivity would impose a larger proportionate income loss in a developing country than in an industrial country. (Source: http://web.worldbank.org/) As part of the UK-India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI), scientists at the University of Liverpool and some Indian Scientists are investigating the anticipated effects of climate change on India’s monsoon season and the impact that alterations in India’s water cycle will have on the country’s people, agriculture and wildlife. They predict that changes to India’s annual monsoon are expected to result in severe droughts and intense flooding in parts of India. Scientists predict that by the end of the century the country will experience a 3 to 5ÚC temperature increase and a 20% rise in all summer monsoon rainfall. Climate change studies undertaken so far reveal that action is essential in order to prevent long term damage to India’s water cycle. The livelihood of a vast population in India depends on agriculture, forestry, wetlands and fisheries and land use in these areas is strongly influenced by water-based ecosystems that depend on monsoon rains. Changes to the water cycle may also cause an increase in water borne diseases such as cholera and hepatitis, as well as diseases carried by insects such as malaria. (Source: http://www.eurekalert.org/) The Food and Agriculture Organization (Sept 2009 News) says climate change will push food prices moderately up until 2050. After that, prices will rise more significantly in line with further increases in temperatures. Agency warns that the climate change will badly affect agriculture and hit developing nations hardest, leading to unreliable food production and higher prices. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), climate change could reduce yields from rain-fed crops in parts of Africa by 50 per cent as early as 2020, putting between 40 and 170 million more people at risk of hunger worldwide. A study by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) showed that when temperatures increase by 1°C (33.8°F) at night during the growing season, global rice yields could be decimated. Another study showed that rice and wheat production could fall globally by eight per cent and 32 per cent respectively by the year 2050(1). In Asia, where more than half of the world’s population resides in just two countries – China and India – if no measures are undertaken to halt the impacts of climate change, agricultural production in China could drop by five to ten per cent; in India, where there will likely be less water for rain and glacier-fed agriculture, production could decline by nearly a third (1).

Balancing between food and climate change

Leading experts have said that global food production needs to be increased by between 50 and 100 per cent by 2050 if widespread famine and world starving is to be avoided in the coming decades as the human population expands rapidly. The first green revolution of the 1960s when dwarf high yield crop varieties, greater use of agro-chemicals, and a change in farming practices led to a dramatic increase in food production: it leapt from 1.84 billion tonnes in 1961 to 4.38 billion tonnes in 2007. However we paid enormous environmental price (read my other blog on Green revolution and sustainable agriculture). A second green revolution has to be based on a sustainable agrculture which can increase food production without a significant expansion in the area of land turned over to farming. Water is already scared commodity and agriculture is consuming more than 70% of available water. There is insufficient water to support an increase in the cultivated areas, and the environmental consequences of increasing cultivated areas are undesirable. The area of land available to sustain each human being is “dangerously declining” because of industrialisation, land use change due to increasing urbanisation, increasing population, soil degradation etc. Per capita land in some area of India is dangerously low. Current energy use in modern agriculture is also unsustainable. Additional production will have to take place without further damage to the environment. This is going to be tight balancing act. Danger is that again poor will be negelected.

Neglect of Agriculture

Share of total Official Development Assistance for Agriculture

Figure 1: Share of total Official Development Assistance for Agriculture

Millions of families in poor countries depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. Neglect of agriculture and low public investments over the last two decades were undoubtedly an underlying cause of poor people’s vulnerability to the recent global food crisis. If donors and governments in developing countries had invested in smallholder agriculture over the past two decades, many countries would be far less vulnerable to the price shocks experienced today. This crisis is going to worsen with climate change if international aid and local governmental contributions are not going to increase substantially. Official Development Assistance to agriculture dropped 75 per cent during the late 1980s and early 1990s (Figure 1 & 2). Total donor investments in agriculture have since remained low. In 2007, US and EU ODA commitments to agriculture increased slightly to $1.2 billion and $1.4 billion, compared with the astonishing $41 billion and $130 billion lavished on their own agriculture sectors in 2006.

Local government expenditures on agriculture

Figure 2: Local government expenditures on agriculture

Renewed donor interest in agriculture has not be visible in real policy shift, and more commitments are trickling in to address the financial crises. Fund allotted for climate change is going to industrial sector or revival of their green economy as an alternative to conventional industry.   A return to 1986-7 levels of commitment to agriculture (about $20 billion per year) would be a good start, although not quite sufficient to meet the recommendations made by the United Nations High-Level Task Force on the Global Food Crisis (UNHLTF) in the Comprehensive Framework for Action (CFA). The CFA estimates that about $40 billion per year is needed for recovery from the current food crisis and prevention from climate change.

Make agriculture centre stage

To reduce poverty, achieve food security and mitigate climate change, investing in agriculture must become a top priority for donors and national governments. Also investments in agriculture must be greater than previously envisioned, predictable, transparent, untied, channelled through budget support, and complemented by funding for civil society groups both as government watchdogs and as complementary service providers. The policy implications for climate change impacts in agriculture are multi-disciplinary. The Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) examined the vulnerability of agricultural production to climate change, and recommended possible adaptations to agriculture policy (2):

  • With agriculture contributing significantly to GNP, it is critical that policy addresses issues of loss of livelihood with changes in crops, as well as the need to shift some regions to new crops, and the associated skills training required.
  • Because impacts vary significantly according to whether crops are rain fed or irrigated, water policy will need to consider the implications for water demand of agricultural change due to climate change.
  • Policy-makers will also need to consider adaptive measures to cope with changing agricultural patterns. Measures may include the introduction of the use of alternative crops, changes to cropping patterns, and promotion of water conservation and irrigation techniques.
  • to account for changing crop yields as well as shifting boundaries for crops, and the impact that this can have on food supply.
  • changes in certain crops can affect imports/exports, depending on the crop (this is particularly relevant for cash crops).


1. H. Reid, A. Simms, V. Johnson (based on contributions from the Working Group on Climate Change and Development and their partners) (2007) “Up in smoke? Asia and the Pacific: The threat from climate change to human development and the environment”, Fifth report by the working group on climate change and development, November 2007. 2. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change: From Practice to Policy http://www.basic-project.net/data/final/Proceedings%20of%20India%20BASIC%20Workshop%20%20Vulnerability%20and%20Ada%85.pdf Figure 1 : Source: Based on data from OECD Statistics (http://www.oecd.org) Figure 2: Source: Data from Public Expenditures, Growth, and Poverty (http://www.ifpri.org/publication/public-expenditures-growth-and-poverty-developing-countries)

Related News Articles

1. Climate change to hit poor farmers hardest (Sydney Morning Herlad, 21 Aug 2009 http://www.smh.com.au/environment/global-warming/climate-change-to-hit-poor-farmers-hardest-20090821-esoz.html 2. Africa: Poor Farmers Face Double Water Crisis: Climate Change and Competition http://www.ecomiles.com/?q=node/26783 3. Climate Change Hurting Poor Farmers Most http://food.change.org/blog/view/climate_change_hurting_poor_farmers_most 4. Agriculture and Climate Change, the new Poker in Climate Activism http://africaclimate.org/2009/06/03/agriculture-and-climate-change-the-new-poker-in-climate-activism/ 5. Poor face more hunger as climate change leads to crop failure (Guardian UK, 5 July 2009) http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/jul/05/crops-farmers-climate-change-oxfam 6. Researchers warn that politics and technical concerns unfairly thwart efforts to use carbon markets to halt deforestation and help poor farmers http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/node/211

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Tags: , , , , , , | Category: Diario de Anita, General, Travel, Viaje

(Español) Mi diario de India (Dia 2)

Día 2:  Patna

Hoy he tenido el placer de conocer el concepto del tiempo hindú; ¡no existe!

Al bajar del tren, con cuatro horas de retraso, he podido sentir centenares de miradas encima de nosotros. Todo el mundo nos estaba observando con una coriusidad tan intensa,  que se podia llegar a percibir con los propios sentidos. Sin duda, para ellos es verdaderamente impactante vernos. De todas maneras, es divertido. No tienen nunga clase de problema en suspender su trayectoria durante unos segundos, al pasar cerca nuestro, simplemente para observarte detenidamente durante varios minutos si es necesario.

La primera vez que nos ha pasado ha sido mientras organizabamos nuestras mochilas para poder subir al coche que nos estaba esperando. Sin saberlo ni quererlo nos hemos visto rodeados, a menos de un metro de distancia, por más de decenas de hindús. ¡Ni siquiera hablaban entre ellos!, solo miraban, y a medida que pasaban los minutos se iban multiplicando. Este hecho tan impactante se iba a convertir en uno más de nuestra rutina.

Lo anterior fue tan impactante cmo la intensidad de gente concentrada en esa ciudad. Gente, vacas, cerdos, cabras, perros…todos conviviendo pacificamente en un caos verdaderamente desorientador.

Mientras nosotros visitavamos el museo de historia de Bihar i atendiamos a las nombrosas imágenes de Buddha i sus diversas versiones, teniamos a un par de hindús que canviaron la visita al museo por el seguimiento y estudio de la cultura occidental. No podria decir cuantas fotografias nos llegaron a hechar.

Con los niños en el museo de Patna

Con los niños en el museo de Patna

Al salir, Claudia y yo sorpendimos a dos niños detrás de un muro. Tenian una camara de fotos, muy antigua desde nuestro punto de vista. Estaban, como la mayoria de gente a partir de ahora, intentando mortificarnos sin que nosotras nos dieramos cuenta. Por supuesto que Claudia y yo, al verles, reaccionamos naturalmente y les dijimos, como pudimos, que sin problemas nos hicieran las fotos que ellos quisieran. En ese instante, los niños se miraron muertos de verguenza y de golpe empezaron a salir niños de todos lados, mucho más atrevidos esta vez, que se nos acercaron y se reian, cada vez más. Era una situación verdaderamente divertida y complicada ya que no podiamos comunicarnos hasta que apareció Vikas i propuso a todos de sentarnos juntos para hacer una foto común. Los niños acpetaron contentisimos y en cuestión de segundos nos vimos rodeados por una clase, sonrisas profidentes, encarados hacia nosotros y de espaldas a la camara! Finalmente conseguimos explicar la finalidad de ese momento, y conseguimos inmovilizar la situación.

Para terminar el segundo día, fuimos a visitar un templo hindú. Para empezar, fuera zapatos. Multitud de gente alli dentro, todos descalzos! En nuestra cultura solo se hablaria de falta de higiene y enfermedades, para mi; fue envidiable. Repleto de hindús, concentrados en sus oraciones, besando el tempo y realizando un ritual a sus diosases que intentaban seguir con sus tradiciones a la vez que, inevitablemente, perdían su concentración por culpa de nuestra presencia entre ellos.

Gracias a su tolerancia y manera de ser, pudimos asistir al ritual, mujeres y hombres por separado, sin duda. Un gran respeto ante todos aquellos gestos y comportamientos convirtieron aquella situación en enormemente emotiva. Conducta y fe . Solo un adjetivo; ADMIRABLE.

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